Child Care  Family Planning

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What is Family Planning?

Family planning is not birth control (using contraceptive methods), but rather, it is planning to have a child at a desirable point in your life.

How many children?

Create a family plan that takes into account your current family situation, the age of the parents, their health and finances.

When to have a child?

It is most desirable from the point of view of the health of both mother and child, to give birth during one's twenties to mid-thirties. Recently, the age that people give birth at is increasing. You must take care of your health while you are pregnant and when you give birth.
If you plan on having another child, do this after the mother’s physical condition and health have recovered from childbirth. As you will be faced with the job of raising the newborn child, leave a reasonable amount of time to ensure the mother’s physical condition is at its best before planning for another child.

Finances

Having a child without any prior financial preparation can be very difficult. It is best to make gradual financial preparations for childbirth, for the sake of the new child.

Precautions following childbirth

Sexual activity should only be resumed following the check-up one month after childbirth. There are cases where pregnancy occurs during the first ovulation following childbirth, before the mother has had her first period. Try to avoid a pregnancy from the first sexual activity immediately after giving birth..

Birth Control (Various Contraceptive Methods)

Exactly what kind of contraceptive methods are available, and which method should be used at what time? Unfortunately there is no contraceptive method that is all of the following:
one-hundred percent safe, long lasting, cheap, easy to use, harmless, does not numb sexual sensation, and that allows the woman to take charge in using the contraceptive. Choose the method that that fulfills at least a few of the above conditions and that both partners agree on, so you can have a happy family.

Birth Control

(1)The Pill (Oral Contraception)

The Pill contains two female hormones, and when ingested, prevents ovulation. The pills require a prescription from a doctor. It is important to undergo regular medical examinations and follow the advice of your doctor on the use of this form of birth control.
Merits Demerits
○he woman makes the decision to use it herself
○Highly effective if taken correctly
×Must be orally ingested on a daily basis.
×Some temporary side effects (bleeding between periods & nausea).
×Cannot be used by some people – depending on physical condition, age and illness

(2)The IUD (Intrauterine Device)

An IUD is placed inside the uterus (womb) and is a method forto preventing implantation of a fertilized egg. A doctor should insert the IUD, and it is necessary to have regular check-ups.
Merits Demerits
○The woman makes the decision to use it herself
○Prevents pregnancy effectively
○Protection against pregnancy for a long period of time
×Some people experience heavier and more painful periods, stomach aches or bleeding
×Not suited for those with little experience of childbirth

(3)Condoms

Condoms, which should be placed on an erect penis, are a method to prevent from entering the vagina. Condoms can be used immediately after childbirth, regardless of whether the mother has resumed her period or not.
Merits Demerits
○Easy to obtain
○Reduces the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI)
○No need to worry about side effects
×Requires the male’s cooperation
×May fail if not used correctly

(4)Female Condoms

A female condom is placed inside the vagina. and is a method to prevent sperm from entering the vagina.
Merits Demerits
○The woman makes the decision to use it herself
○Reduces the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI)
×If used incorrectly, there is a chance that the female condom could break or slip during sex allowing semen to enter the uterus
× Sometimes difficult to insert or use meaning practice is necessary

(5)Pessary

A pessary is placed in the vagina as a cap over the external orifice of the uterus to prevent semen from entering. Pessaries must usually be fit by a physician and require medical advice as to the method of use.
Merits Demerits
○The woman makes the decision to use it herself
○No need to worry about side effects
○The pessary is economical and can be used multiple times
×Your doctor will need to decide which type of pessary you should use and it has to be fit properly.
×Practice is necessary to use it properly

(6)Other / Auxiliary Methods Spermicides

Spermicides can come in various forms including tablets and, jelly and are used in the vagina to kill sperm. Spermicides are, in general, relatively unreliable and therefore not recommended for use on their own as the only method of contraception. They are usually used in conjunction with barrier methods such as the condom or the pessary.

(7)Basal Body Temperature Method & Calendar / Rhythm Method (Ogino)

Basal Body Temperature Method

This method involves measuring the woman’s body temperature first thing in the morning on a daily basis with a thermometer and recording the temperature. Ovulation occurs when the Basal Body Temperature (BBT) changes from a low to a high temperature. During the period of low BBT and in the first three days of high BBT, contraceptives such as condoms should be used.
This method should not be used for a period of time after childbirth or by those without a large difference between their low and high temperature.
Basal Body Temperature Method

Calendar/Rhythm Method (Ogino)

Proper use of this method involves using about a year’s worth of data to check when you are fertile. For that period, you should use a condom or other contraceptive to avoid becoming pregnant. This method cannot be used if your periods are irregular, you are breastfeeding, after you have had a serious illness, or during the menopause.
Calendar/Rhythm Method (Ogino)

(8)Sterilization

Sterilization seals the spermaduct in men and the fallopian tubes in women. It reliably prevents pregnancy, but it is difficult to reverse should you decide you want children later.

Even if you become pregnant when you didn’t plan to, do not consider abortion an easy option. Abortion operations may cause side effects such as becoming infertile or lead to future miscarriage. Abortions also lead to a great deal of mental stress.

Therefore, in order to practice effective birth control:
  • Use a combination of 2-3 types of birth control methods.
  • Taking into account each other’s circumstances, try and decide on a method that suits you as a couple.
  • Understand the workings of the human genitals and birth control devices, and use them correctly. It’s important to get correct, trustworthy advice from a physician or someone with detailed knowledge of pregnancy and that you follow this advice.
Rate of failure in year of use for contraceptive methods

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